The Dittus-Boelter equation gives the heat transfer coefficient h for heat transfer from the fluid flowing through a pipe to the pipe walls. It was determined by. DITTUS-BOELTER EQUATION. (see Supercritical heat transfer; Tubes, single phase heat transfer in). Number of views: Article added: 8 February Thus the Dittus-Boelter equation (eq) should be used,. Thus h can be calculated for the known values of k, and d, which comes out to be. Energy balance is.
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For turbulent flow in rough tubes, the heat transfer coefficient increases goelter wall roughness. Heat and Mass Transfer. For the case of constant surface temperature, . Lamarsh, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Theory, 2nd ed. The Dottus correlation may be used for small to moderate temperature differences, T wall — T avgwith all properties evaluated at an averaged temperature T avg. For complex shapes, the length may be defined as the volume of the fluid body divided by the surface area.
The convection and conduction heat flows are parallel to each other and to the surface normal of the boundary surface, and are all perpendicular to the mean fluid flow in the simple case.
The conductive component is measured under the same conditions as the heat convection but with a hypothetically stagnant or motionless fluid. International Journal of Thermal Sciences. Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer 4th ed. Belter the Reynolds number equatiom decide on laminar, transition, or turbulent flow.
The meanor averagenumber is obtained by integrating the expression over the range of interest, such as: Typically, for free convection, the average Nusselt number is expressed as a function ditgus the Rayleigh number and the Prandtl numberwritten as:.
The Grashof Number provides a measure of the significance of natural convection. Selection of the characteristic length should be in the direction of growth or thickness of the boundary layer; some examples of characteristic length are: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A similar non-dimensional parameter is Biot number, with the difference that the thermal conductivity is of the solid body and not the fluid.
As the Reynolds number increases, the viscous sublayer becommes thinner and smaller.
All heat generated in the fuel must be transferred via conduction through the cladding and therefore the inner surface is hotter than the outer surface. Description In heat transfer at a boundary surface within a fluid, the Nusselt number Nu is the ratio of convective to conductive heat transfer across normal to the boundary.
In heat transfer at a boundary surface within a fluidthe Nusselt number Nu is the ratio of convective to conductive heat transfer across normal to the boundary.
For fully developed hydrodynamically and thermally turbulent flow in a smooth circular tube, the local Nusselt number may be obtained from the well-known Dittus-Boelter equation. Levenspiel recommends the following correlation for transition flow. The convective heat transfer coefficient, his given directly by the definition of Nusselt number:.
What is the flow regime? To calculate the Prandtl numberdiftus have to know:. Less dense fluid tends to rise, while the boeltr dense fluid falls.
Named after Wilhelm Nusseltit is a dimensionless number. To calculate the cladding surface temperaturewe have to calculate the PrandtlReynolds and Nusselt numberbecause the heat transfer for this flow regime can be described equaion the Dittus-Boelter equationwhich is:. An understanding of convection boundary layers is necessary squation understanding convective heat transfer between a surface and a fluid flowing past it.
Such errors may be reduced through the use of more recent, but generally more complex, correlations such as the Gnielinski correlation. Named after Wilhelm Nusselt, it is a dimensionless number.
Heating and cooling effect the velocity profile of a flowing fluid differently because of the temperature dependence of viscosity. The result is circulation — “natural” or “free” convection. This movement raises h values in slow moving fluids near surfaces, but is rarely significant in turbulent flow.
The Sieder-Tate correlation is normally solved by an iterative process, as the viscosity factor will change as the Nusselt number changes. The Nusselt number for the forced convection inside the fuel channel is then equal to:. Flow boeelter a pipe, around an object, over a plane, etc.
For flows characterized by large property variations, the corrections e. The correlations that follow are limited to conduit flow without phase change. Therefore a modified form of Dittus-Boelter equation was proposed by Sieder and Tate